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Starting from 2013, on an annual basis, theIstat offers an overview of the well-being of Italians in its various dimensions, through the Bes report on fair and sustainable well-being. The report is not configured only as an editorial product: it is a real line of research which, analyzing a wide set of indicators, describes the aspects that contribute to the quality of life of citizens.
The analysis provides for the division into twelve sectors of the company or "domains", investigated through the lens of 130 indicators.
The twelve domains examined are:
- Education and training;
- Work and reconciliation of life times;
- Economic well-being;
- Social relations;
- Politics and institutions;
- Subjective well-being;
- Landscape and cultural heritage;
- Innovation, research and creativity;
- Quality of services.
The main findings of the Bes Report 2018
The latest edition of the ISTAT Report on Fair and Sustainable Wellbeing dates back to December 2018. The analysis reveals several innovations compared to previous years, with 40% of indicators showing improvement. These are mainly the domains linked to economic well-being and the labor market. On the other hand, 30% of the indicators remain in a difficult situation. This is the case, in particular, of the components linked to subjectivity, such as satisfaction with life and perceptions regarding expectations about the future.
As evidenced by Roberto Monducci, director of DIPS Istat, an interesting fact detectable from the latest report is that in cases where an improvement occurs, this affects the entire country, including "the most backward regions which maintain a negative differential in terms of levels but which in terms of dynamics keep pace with the most advanced areas”.
Bes Report 2018: brief focus on domains and indicators
A more lively labor market emerges from the Bes 2018 report: employment levels in the 20-64 age group increase in 2017 to 62.3%. The employment scenario also appears less insecure: the rate of fatal injuries and permanent disability drops to 11.6 per 10,000 employed, from 12.1% in 2015. In 2017, the percentage of employed persons who believe to be “Likely to lose current job"And both"little or no probable to find another similar one”.
The economic well-being results in recovery. The adjusted gross disposable income per capita for all households returns to the levels of 2010-2011. In 2017, the indicators of severe material deprivation, very low work intensity, low quality of housing and severe economic difficulties also improved. Absolute poverty, however, is on the rise further.
The productive system proves to be more oriented towardsinnovation and to Research. There are greater investments in research (+0.1 points on GDP in 2016), in intellectual property products (+ 2.1% in 2017) and in technological innovations. There are advances in skilled work: the number of graduates employed in the technical-scientific sectors is growing (16.9% equal to +0.7 percentage points on 2016). Italy's ability to retain young graduates also slightly improved, with the migration rate passing to -4.1 per thousand compared to -4.5 in 2016.
Positive signs are highlighted at the level of protection and enhancement of the territory. Agritourism farms are increasingly widespread, playing a decisive role in rural development and territorial protection (+ 3.3% compared to 2016). Unauthorized construction appears to be slightly decreasing (19.4 illegal buildings per 100 authorized, compared to 19.6 in 2016), but the situation in the South still remains critical. The pressure exerted by the activities of quarries and mines on the landscape and the environment is showing a decline (less than 3% on 2015).
In contrast one emerges low satisfaction with one's life, accompanied by a progressive impoverishment of social relations and a very low level of trust towards others (19.8%).
Theremoval of citizens from politics and by institutions. In particular, the share of people who talk about politics decreased (from 36.7% to 33.4%) and of those who get information (from 58.2% to 54.1%). Citizens' trust in the judiciary, Parliament and political parties is also falling.
Some services for citizens and families are unsatisfactory. The inefficiencies on the water front appear to be particularly severe: 9.6% of households suffered water supply interruptions in the three-year period 2015-17, of which 18.8% in Southern Italy. Citizens are dissatisfied with public transport.
On the front of the health, the growth trend of life expectancy, with a reduction in the traditional advantage of women. The increased longevity of women goes hand in hand with more precarious health conditions: a 65-year-old woman can expect to live an average of 22.2 more years, of which 58% with activity limitations. For a man of the same age, however, life expectancy is 19 years, of which only 47% with limitations. There is little progress in the spread of healthier lifestyles, with regard to nutrition, alcohol consumption and smoking, especially among men. One in five adults are both overweight and sedentary.
With respect to the environment, there are difficulties in managing the forest heritage, with a strong growth of forest fires. They emerge evident hydrogeological problems: 2.2% of the population is exposed to the risk of landslides while 10.4% to that of floods. In fact, Italy is among the European countries most exposed to hydrogeological risk, resulting from the combination of historical deficiencies in territorial planning, intensity of anthropization and intrinsic structural fragility of the territory itself. There are also large territorial differences in separate collection: 25 points between North and South (respectively 66.2% and 41.9% of urban waste).
In 2017, 21% of Italians expressed concern about the loss of biodiversity. The percentage has been growing steadily since 2012 in all areas and varies significantly with age: it exceeds 30% among the youngest (14-19 years) and falls to 12.9% among the elderly aged 75 and over. representing a sign of the growing environmental awareness of the younger generations.
- "The trend of fair and sustainable wellbeing in Italy - The main results of the 2018 Report" by Roberto Monducci, Director of the Department for Statistical Production, 18 December 2018
- Bes report 2018